U.S. Department of Energy

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

Building ENergy Demand (BEND)

BEND model examples
Examples of the relationship between the zone mean temperatures in 2010 (x-axes) and simulated building energy demand (y-axes) using the calibrated BEND model in 4 different PROMOD zones. In each panel the black dots indicate hourly values and the cyan lines are the second-order polynomial regression between temperature and building energy demand (Fig. 3 from Burleyson et al. 2017).

The Building ENergy Demand (BEND) model was developed at PNNL to simulate climate-dependent hourly building energy demands with the ability to aggregate up to any geographic area, including counties, states, electric utility zones, or census regions. BEND combines DOE’s EnergyPlus model (for individual buildings) with a geostatistical analysis of regional climate, population, and building types/technologies to provide scale-flexible characterization of regional building energy demand, with an initial focus on the Eastern Interconnection (Dirks et al. 2015). The major outputs of BEND include peak and total of annual building energy consumption for both residential and commercial buildings aggregated up to any geographic area. The BEND model has a customizable range of specificity across a variety of parameters including spatial (1/8° to national) and temporal (sub-hourly to annual) resolutions, building types, vintages, and sizes. This flexibility and the physical representation of buildings within BEND make it a crucial building block for understanding the dynamics of grid stress under high temperature conditions. The PNNL team is currently working to extend BEND to establish more robust methods for calibrating BEND (Xie et al., in preparation), to characterize the sensitivity to input data sets (Burleyson et al., submitted), and to represent hourly changes in building energy demand associated with heat wave events (Voison et al., in preparation).

Point of Contact: Todd Taylor

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Dirks JA, WJ Gorrissen, JH Hathaway, DC Skorski, MJ Scott, TC Pulsipher, M Huang, Y Liu, and JS Rice. 2015. “Impacts of Climate Change on Energy Consumption and Peak Demand in Buildings: A Detailed Regional Approach.” Energy. 79. 20–32. DOI:10.1016/j.energy.2014.08.081.

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